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Video Blog: An Explanation of our Glossary of Terms

Understand the terms used throughout catalog descriptions for Fine Art at Skinner. Robin S.R. Starr, Vice President and Director of American & European Works of Art, explains and illustrates how, where, and why these terms are used at Skinner in the accompanying video.

Glossary of Terminology:

Attributed to
The work may be by the artist’s hand, but leaves some question or doubt as to actual authorship.

School of
A work of an unknown follower executed in the style of the artist and contemporary in period.

Circle of or Studio of
These are similar in meaning to “School of,” but are sometimes deemed more appropriate.

Manner of
A work executed in the style of the artist by an unknown hand and probably from a later period.

American School, 19th Century
A work by an undefined hand created in a particular place and time.

A work that is created in the style of a particular period and culture, but of a later date.

A copy after an artist’s known composition by another hand. The copy could have been created during the artist’s lifetime or 400 years after the artist’s death.

Bears signature
While the signature appears on a work, in our opinion it is not an authentic signature.

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